The Draft Brexit Withdrawal Agreement
The NI protocol, known as “backstop,” is supposed to be temporary and applies unless it is replaced by a future relationship agreement that the parties will attempt to reach by December 31, 2020. The protocol provides that the common travel area and North-South cooperation will continue to a large extent as they do today, as well as the internal electricity market (so that some EU legislation on wholesale electricity markets will continue to apply). BBC editor-in-chief Laura Kuenssberg said the deal contained a British “backstop” to prevent further border controls in Northern Ireland. Jacob Rees-Mogg on the draft agreement #Brexit: “This is a failure of the government`s negotiating position and a failure to achieve Brexit” More: t.co/2mQCM04C9T pic.twitter.com/4r9er46Krp This “backstop” has proved to be the most controversial part of the withdrawal negotiations, with concerns expressed by the Brexit Conservatives and the DUP about how they work. No. 10 said that ministers had been summoned to a special meeting to “examine the draft agreement reached by the negotiating teams in Brussels and decide on the next steps”. It added that any deviation from the withdrawal agreement, however weak, would “violate international law and undermine trust.” On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  The most important elements of the draft agreement are: The 599-page withdrawal agreement covers the following key areas: The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification.
The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286. On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement. It was then concluded by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. Tory MP Justine Greening said the deal would have less influence over the UK and undermine its credibility. The withdrawal agreement provides for how to ensure that there will be no physical border controls in Northern Ireland – the main sensitive point of recent weeks.